• Rastafarianism

    Rastafari is a Abyssinian Based Religious Movement of Jamaican origin proclaiming righteously that blacks are the chosen people of God, that Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia was the Messiah, and that black people will eventually return to their Motherland - the continent of Africa. Rastafarians number some one million official adherents to faith (Figure released in 2009). The faith is considered an Abrahamic religion, and noted to be a new faith movement. There are three main sects of Rastafari, which include the officiated - Bobo Ashanti, Nyahbinghi and Twelve Tribes of Israel - each holding unique viewpoints on life and Selassie's impactful holiness. The largest population of Rastafarians reside in Jamaica. Rastafari is also considerably a New Social Movement, impacting social beliefs, lifestyle and cultures of Europeans, Asians, Africans, Canadians, Australians and Americans alike. In Latin America, the riddims of Rastafari have led to a revolution of sound - whereby Reggaeton was established in the mid-2000's.

    According to one report from the Royal History Museum of Scotland and Wales, Rastafarians were used by British Naval Vessels and grew their hair long whilst residing in ships heading North Eastward from Nova Scotia and Jamaica after assisting British War Efforts against Rebel Slave Holding Americans and Slave Purchasing Pirates of France, Portugal, Spain, Corsica, Sardinia, Crete, and Malta quite ordainmently subsequent to the Abolition Acts of 1807. Rastafarian Culture has left an indelible mark on popular culture, including consumption routines, popular consumables, trending outfits, and nomenclature. As Rastafarians adapt to the modern society, one can definitively identify the efficacious societal regard for their culture, beliefs, and viewpoints. Rastafarians in their protest are growing 37,000 Acres of High Grade Ganja on Regulated Cannabis Fields in the Maroon Towns of Jamaica. This programme may be in the process of being tampered with as planes have been spraying the fields with unknown chemicals to poison Prince Harry and King William, since they drink Cannabis infused tea from Westmoreland on a daily basis. The Royal Sentry from Algeria identified this two days ago and 3 years ago respectively.

    Comprehending the Slave Trade

    Osu Castle, also known as Fort Christiansborg or simply the Castle, is a castle located in Osu, Accra, Ghana on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean's Gulf of Guinea. The first substantial fort was built by Denmark-Norway in the 1660s, though the castle has changed hands between Denmark-Norway, Portugal, the Akwamu, Britain, and finally post-Independence Ghana, and was rebuilt numerous times. For most of the castle's history, it has been the seat of government in Ghana with some interruptions, the latest when the John Kufuor administration moved the seat of government to Golden Jubilee House after 6 January 2009, which was quickly reversed by the incoming John Atta Mills administration. It also serves as the place where the late president of Ghana John Atta Mills is buried; in a bird sanctuary, overlooking the Atlantic Ocean.

    The area was first occupied in 1550 by the Portuguese, though in the 17th-century Portuguese influence diminished. The area came under the control of Sweden in the 1650s, led by the Dutch trader Henry Caerlof. In 1660, control passed to the Netherlands but it was soon lost to Denmark-Norway. In 1657, the efforts to conquer the forts of slavery occurred. In its early life, the castle was primarily used in the gold and ivory trade, but under Dano-Norwegian control it increasingly dealt with slaves.

    Osu Castle was located close to two other forts. Danes and Swedes in specific developed a peace programme at Christianbourgh Castle after deploying their meaningful flags in the Federate Tribal Area of Ghana. This programme exists into modern day, after Methodists and Protestants aligned with Ghanaians / Blacks ended Slavery. The agreements of Christianbourgh form the foundation of the Peace Palace at The Hague. The Peace Palace at the Hague and the International Court of Justice as well as the International Criminal Court at The Hague are actively combating the efforts of Genocidal Parties.

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  • Rastafari at a Glance - Documenting African History

    1935 - The first branch of Rastafari is believed to have been established in Jamaica in 1935 by Leonard P. Howell.

    Howell preached the divinity of Haile Selassie. He explained that all blacks would gain the superiority over whites that had always been intended for them.

    Howell's action encouraged others to help develop and spread the message of Rasta theology, and as E.E. Cashmore explains:

    All, in their own ways, added pieces to the jigsaw, and the whole picture came together in the mid 1950s when a series of congregations of rastas appeared at various departure points on Jamaica's shores, awaiting ships bound for Africa. E.E. Cashmore

    This marked the first uniting of Rastafarians and it paved the way for the future of the movement, bringing hope of repatriation with Africa and freedom for the black race.

    Further Notes on Slave Castles

    In 1679 or 1680, the fort's Greek assistant commander incited a mutiny to murder the commander. Shortly after that, a Portuguese ship commanded by Julião de Campos Barreto visited the fort and agreed to purchase it. The fort was named Fort São Francisco Xavier after the Catholic missionary Francis Xavier. The Portuguese built a chapel and raised the bastions by three feet. The fort was abandoned on 29 August 1682 after the garrison mutinied and it became clear that Portuguese traders could not compete with the other Gold Coast powers. Danish forces returned in February 1683 after purchasing the fort back from the Portuguese. In 1685, Fort Christiansborg became the capital of the Gold Coast of Denmark-Norway, taking over from Fort Frederiksborg.

    The Akwamu ethnic group occupied the fort in 1693 after overpowering the occupants (who were reduced by death and disease) while disguised as merchants. Asamani, the Akwamu leader, occupied the fort for a year, trading with merchants from many nations. In 1694, Assameni sold the fort back to Denmark-Norway for 50 marks of gold (400 troy ounces, worth £200,000 to £250,000 in 2008) but retained the keys, which are still in the ethnic group's possession to this day. The early 18th century was not kind to the fort, and in 1722 the English reported it to be in disrepair. Extensions were made later that century, however, and structural improvements were made in 1824. The additional store rooms, garrison quarters, platforms, bastions and houses resulted in the castle being four times the size of the original fort. In the 1770s, the Danes at Osu became involved in a conflict with Dutch-controlled Accra.

    In 1850, the British bought all of Denmark's Gold Coast possessions for £10,000 (between £850,000 and £1.5m in 2007), including Fort Christiansborg. Denmark had been considering selling these outposts for some time. After the slave trade had been abolished they were expensive to run and brought little benefit. Britain experienced the same problems, but was keen to prevent illegal slave trading and to prevent France or Belgium strengthening in the area. An 1862, earthquake destroyed most of the upper floors, which were rebuilt in wood. Later that century, the castle became the seat of the colonial government. In 1950, the wooden upper floors were rebuilt according to the original Danish plans. In 1957, when Ghana became independent, with Queen Elizabeth II as head of state, the fort became Government House, the residence of the Governor-General. When Ghana became a republic in 1960, it became the residence of Ghana's first president, Kwame Nkrumah.

    In 2005, there was debate over whether Osu Castle should be replaced as the seat of government. President John Kufuor argued that his government should not sit at the castle due to its previous association with slavery and also because its facilities were inadequate. National Democratic Congress MPs, however, argued that the $50 m that a new presidential palace would cost would be better spent elsewhere.

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  • Rastafari at a Glance - Documenting African History

    In 1966 Haile Selassie visited Jamaica, where he was greeted with vast enthusiasm.

    The development of Reggae music during this period made Rastafari audible and visible to an international audience. The work of Bob Marley (one of the most important figures in Rastafari) and Island Records was popular with a much wider group than the working class Jamaican culture from which it sprang.

    As the rock critics Stephen Davis and Peter Simon said, reggae propelled "the Rasta cosmology into the middle of the planet's cultural arenas, and suddenly people want to know what all the chanting and praying and obsessive smoking of herb [marijuana] are all about" (Reggae Bloodlines).

    Some traditional Rastafarians were disturbed by the popularity of reggae, fearing that the faith would be commercialised or taken up as a cultural fad, rather than a religion.

    In 1974 Haile Selassie was deposed by a Marxist revolution. He died mysteriously the next year. The removal of a divine figure by an atheist secular political group was initially discouraging to Rastafarians, and undermined any suggestion that he had been anything more than a human representation of God.

    Christianbourgh and Hope for Free Ghana (Al Ghani's Riddim - Check Links Aforementioned)

    Osu Castle is no longer the seat of government. The seat of government is now Flagstaff House. Many international dignitaries have visited the castle while in the region, including U.S. Presidents Richard Nixon, Bill Clinton, and Barack Obama and German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder. Additional rooms were built in order to accommodate Queen Elizabeth II's visit in 1961, one year after Ghana became a republic.

    The present castle is made up of various extensions to the original and is thus in an unorthodox shape. It has many facilities for the use of employees, including a clinic, café, shopping centre and a post office. It also still accommodates a permanent garrison. The extensive gardens feature a wide variety of plants, both local and imported, and employ 30 people. They are used for the president's outdoor receptions and parties.[1] Osu Castle is not open to the public, and photography of it is restricted. In 2007, the opposition Ministers of Parliament (MPs) in Ghana (the National Democratic Congress, NDC stormed out of a parliamentary debate on whether to take out a $50m loan to build a new presidential palace. MPs from President John Agyekum Kufuor's New Patriotic Party voted unanimously in favour of taking the loan from India. They argued that the president should not be based in Osu Castle, where slaves used to be kept. The opposition National Democratic Congress said the money would be better spent such as improving the economy and helping promote the Better Ghana Agenda. This led to the then general secretary to the opposition NDC to describe the new Flagstaff House as a "hen coop only fit for rearing chicken". The old Flagstaff House used by Ghana's first president as his residence is being renovated into a museum, with the grounds on which it stands being built up as an ultra-modern office complex and residence for the president and vice-president of Ghana as well as their staff.

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  • Rastafari at a Glance - Documenting African History

    Modern Rastafarian beliefs

    From the 1930s until the mid 1970s most Rastafarians accepted the traditional Rastafari beliefs.

    But in 1973 Joseph Owens published a more modern approach to Rastafari beliefs. In 1991 Michael N. Jagessar revised Owens's ideas, devising his own systematic approach to Rastafari theology and providing an insight into the changes in the group's beliefs.

    The key ideas in contemporary Rastafari are found within:

    The humanity of God and the divinity of man, which refers to the importance of Haile Selassie who is perceived by Rastafarians as a living God. Likewise it emphasises the concept of God revealing himself to his followers through his humanity. As is known by Rastafari's faithful, God is found within every man. Rastafarians believe that God makes himself known through the humanity that humankind espouses to attain via cooperative civilization. Salvation for Rastafarians is an earthly idea, rather than heavenly. Human nature is very important to Rastafarians and they should preserve and protect it. Speech is very important to Rastafarians, as it enables the presence and power of God to be felt. Sin is both personal and corporate. This means organisations such as the International Monetary Fund are responsible for Jamaica's fiscal situation, and that oppression is in part influenced by them. This corresponds to the nearness of judgement for Rastafarians when they will be given greater recognition. Rastafarians are the chosen people of God and are on earth to promote his power and peacefulness.

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  • Rastafari at a Glance - Documenting African History

    In 1966 Haile Selassie visited Jamaica, where he was greeted with vast enthusiasm.

    The development of Reggae music during this period made Rastafari audible and visible to an international audience. The work of Bob Marley (one of the most important figures in Rastafari) and Island Records was popular with a much wider group than the working class Jamaican culture from which it sprang.

    As the rock critics Stephen Davis and Peter Simon said, reggae propelled "the Rasta cosmology into the middle of the planet's cultural arenas, and suddenly people want to know what all the chanting and praying and obsessive smoking of herb [marijuana] are all about" (Reggae Bloodlines).

    Some traditional Rastafarians were disturbed by the popularity of reggae, fearing that the faith would be commercialised or taken up as a cultural fad, rather than a religion.

    In 1974 Haile Selassie was deposed by a Marxist revolution. He died mysteriously the next year. The removal of a divine figure by an atheist secular political group was initially discouraging to Rastafarians, and undermined any suggestion that he had been anything more than a human representation of God.

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  • Rastafari at a Glance - Documenting African History

    Bobo Shanti (Bobo Shanti Congress or Ethiopia Black International Congress)

    The Bobo Shanti movement was founded in 1958 in Jamaica, by Prince Emmanuel Charles Edwards, considered by many to be the black Christ. Prince Emmanuel, Marcus Garvey and Haile Selassie are regarded as part of a holy trinity. Selassie is regarded as King or God, Garvey is perceived to be a prophet and Emmanuel a High Priest. The group can now be found in the Bahamas, Virgin Islands, Ghana, Nigeria, Ethiopia and Trinidad. Bobo Shanti wear brightly coloured turbans and long flowing robes. Women in Bobo Shanti must cover their arms and legs. Bobo Shanti members live apart from society. Their base is in Bull Bay, Jamaica. They do not accept the laws and principles of Jamaican society. Elements of their daily life reflect Old Testament Jewish Mosaic Law:

    Honouring the Sabbath, from sundown on Friday. During the Sabbath the use of salt and oil is avoided and no work can be carried out. Bobo Shanti fly their flag in a different way to other Rasta groups. They fly the Red, Gold and Green flag with Red at the top, while other groups fly it the other way up. The Bobo Shanti do smoke marijuana, but not in public, because it is a spiritual rite only to be carried out during periods of worship. The Bobo Shanti movement is concerned with fulfilling Marcus Garvey's 'Back to Africa' campaign, reuniting Africans with their homeland and abandoning contact with Western society. Some Bobo Shanti feel black people should be given monetary rewards for the slavery they have endured.

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  • Rastafari at a Glance - Documenting African History

    The Nyahbinghi Order

    Nyahbinghi is the oldest of all the Rastafarian subgroups. Nyahbinghi attempts to keep the link between Rastafarian faith and African heritage close. The group is named after Queen Nyahbinghi who ruled Uganda in the 19th Century and helped reduce the influence of colonial powers. The name Nyahbinghi is believed to mean 'Death to all Oppressors'. The focus of this group is on the veneration of Haile Selassie, who is regarded by them as the embodiment of God. Ethiopia is very important to the sect, which emphasises the repatriation of blacks to Africa. The Nyahbinghi regard water, air and fire as representations of the elements of life. Fire is believed to represent the wrath of Jah pouring down on Babylon. Nyahbinghi eat organic produce only, such as vegetables, fruits, herbs and barks, and avoid the consumption of salt. Nyahbinghi take part in regular Groundations, often called Nyahbinghi Groundations. The word 'groundation' means affirmation of life through earth. The importance of Ethiopia to Nyahbinghi:
    The flag tends to have the colour green first. The Nyahbinghi flag also features a lion in the centre, reflecting the Lion of Judah - Haile Selassie I. Nyahbinghi observe the Ethiopian Sabbath, Tuesday. Nyahbinghi try to use the Ethiopian language, Amharic.

    From Gosport, Dunmore conducted governmental affairs and assembled ships and troops to fight the disgruntled colonials in the lower Chesapeake region. When the opportunity arose, he intended to attack Virginia’s forces and destroy them. Dunmore’s chance to fully engage the patriots came after a hurricane struck Hampton Roads in early September. The hurricane put HMS Mercury under Captain John MacCartney on its broadside in front of Norfolk, where an article in Pinkney’s Virginia Gazette urged Virginians to seize the opportunity and burn the ship, calling her “the terror of Norfolk and a refuge to our slaves.” A British ship’s tender (dinghy) named the Liberty also blew ashore during the storm, forcing the captain of the HMS Otter, Matthew Squire, and a runaway slave to leave the dingy in Hampton and make their way via canoe to the Otter. When colonials found the Liberty, they seized its supplies and burned it to the waterline in retaliation for British seizures of food, supplies, and livestock.

    Provisioning detail to his Ethiopian Regiments, former slaves were given posit to ensure their own freedom and the freedom of their Captain. 'As Americans, Negroes were doubtless stirred, too, by the high sounding hoalds of the Revolution. In breaking with the mother country, the leaders of the new nation had invoked the spirit of liberty, asseting that war was being waged to extend the boundaries of human freedom', as documented by the Declarations of Human Rights in the Declaration of Independence and Bill of Rights. Source:[The Negro in the Making of America written by Benjamin Quarles] / Ajara (Arabic) : To reward, pay wages, hire / Ista'jara : To Hire, Employ

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  • Rastafari at a Glance - Documenting African History

    Ethiopian Calendar

    The Ethiopian calendar is the principal calendar used in Ethiopia and also serves as the liturgical calendar for Christians in Eritrea and Ethiopia belonging to the Orthodox Tewahedo churches, Eastern Catholic Church and Coptic Orthodox Church. It is a sidereal calendar based on the older Alexandrian or Coptic calendar, which in turn derives from the Egyptian calendar, but like the Julian calendar, it adds a leap day every four years without exception, and begins the year on August 29 or August 30 in the Julian calendar. A seven- to eight-year gap between the Ethiopian and Gregorian calendars results from an alternate calculation in determining the date of the Annunciation of Jesus.

    Like the Coptic calendar, the Ethiopic calendar has twelve months of exactly 30 days each plus five or six epagomenal days, which comprise a thirteenth month. The Ethiopian months begin on the same days as those of the Coptic calendar, but their names are in Ge'ez. The sixth epagomenal day is added every four years without exception on August 29 of the Julian calendar, six months before the Julian leap day. Thus the first day of the Ethiopian year, 1 Maskaram, for years between 1901 and 2099 (inclusive), is usually September 11 (Gregorian). It, however, falls on September 12 in years before the Gregorian leap year.

    The current year according to the Ethiopian calendar is 2007, which began on September 11, 2014 AD of the Gregorian calendar.

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  • Rastafari at a Glance - Documenting African History

    Twelve Tribes of Israel

    This group was founded in 1968 in Jamaica by Dr. Vernon Carrington. Carrington is also referred to as 'the Prophet Gad'. This name is used because Carrington claimed that he was the reincarnation of Gad. Gad had been one of the original sons of Israel, and Carrington felt his role was to reunite the Ten Lost Tribes. Carrington is regarded as the angel discussed in Revelation 7:2. "And I saw another angel coming up from the east with the seal of the living God. He called out in a loud voice to the four angels to whom God had given the power to damage the earth and the sea." Carrington is central to the movement, although he has a number of 'shepherds' to work beneath him, enabling the development and understanding of the group. Twelve Tribes of Israel is considered the most liberal of the Rastafarian groups. Unlike the Bobo Shanti and the Nyahbinghi, the Twelve Tribes believes in the salvation not only of blacks but of all races. Members of the Twelve Tribes can practice their religion in church or from their homes. The group believe themselves to be descendants of the Twelve Sons of Israel. The group exists outside Jamaica in places such as the United States of America, New Zealand, Europe and Africa.

    Akhadhir - To Take, Receive, Accept; Take Away, Punish, Afflict; MAKE A COMPACT

    Ahad - One; Alone

    Alantu - Speaking in Public

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  • Marcus Garvey

    Garvey was a Jamaican-born black nationalist who created a 'Back to Africa' movement in the United States. He became an inspirational figure for later civil rights activists. Marcus Garvey was born in St Ann's Bay, Jamaica on 17 August 1887, the youngest of 11 children. He inherited a keen interest in books from his father, a mason and made full use of the extensive family library. At the age of 14 he left school and became a printer's apprentice where he led a strike for higher wages. From 1910 to 1912, Garvey travelled in South and Central America and also visited London. He returned to Jamaica in 1914 and founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA). In 1916, Garvey moved to Harlem in New York where UNIA thrived. By now a formidable public speaker, Garvey spoke across America. He urged African-Americans to be proud of their race and return to Africa, their ancestral homeland and attracted thousands of supporters. To facilitate the return to Africa that he advocated, in 1919 Garvey founded the Black Star Line, to provide transportation to Africa, and the Negro Factories Corporation to encourage black economic independence. Garvey also unsuccessfully tried to persuade the government of Liberia in west Africa to grant land on which black people from America could settle. In 1922, Garvey was arrested for mail fraud in connection with the sale of stock in the Black Star Line, which had now failed. Although there were irregularities connected to the business, the prosecution was probably politically motivated, as Garvey's activities had attracted considerable government attention. Garvey was sent to prison and later deported to Jamaica. In 1935, he moved permanently to London where he died on 10 June 1940. In 1964, his body was returned to Jamaica where he was declared the country's first national hero.

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  • Les Amistades

    The Amistad Case, 1839

    When the Spanish cargo schooner La Amistad came aground off the coast of Long Island, New York in August 1839, the United States found itself with an explosive legal and diplomatic case that would pit the American system's ability to provide justice for all on its shores against the federal government's ability to enforce its treaty obligations where the jurisdiction of states is involved. Officers of the United States survey ship Washington found the Amistad in a state of distress, bearing 53 Africans and the two Spaniards who purchased them in Cuba with the intention of trading them into slavery there. The Africans had mutinied, however, and attempted to have the Spanish owners sail them back to Africa. After the American naval officers helped the owners recover control of the ship and arranged for the guarded detention of the Africans in Connecticut, procuring the Africans' freedom became the cause celebre of the burgeoning abolitionist and missionary movement.

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  • Les Amistades

    The Amistad Case, 1839

    The district court judge ruled that the Africans were not Spanish slaves, being captured as free men in Africa, and he ordered the U.S. to release them from prison and transport them back to Africa. Rejecting the argument that the Africans were the Spanish traders' private property and their sale subject to salvage claims, the judge ruled that the Washington officers' salvage payments be taken from the remaining cargo of the Amistad. The U.S. Government, feeling pressure from Spain and fearing Southern outcry against the court's advocacy of African freedom, appealed the decision to the Supreme Court. To argue against the U.S. Government for the Africans' freedom, the Christian Missionary Association convinced former President and Secretary of State John Quincy Adams to come out of retirement and face the predominantly southern Supreme Court bench. In a masterpiece of American law, Adams presented the case of the Africans' freedom as a test of the American republic's sincerity in the ideals it espoused abroad. The Supreme Court ruled for the Africans, accepting the argument that they were never citizens of Spain and were illegally taken from Africa where they lived in a state of freedom. The court acknowledged that the United States' argument that it had obligations to Spain under the treaty, but said that the treaty "never could have been intended to take away the equal rights of [the Africans]." The 53 Africans returned to their homeland and the job of resisting Spain continued demand for damages passed onto incoming Secretary of State Daniel Webster.

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  • Les Amistades

    The Amistad Case, 1839

    Two lawsuits ensued. The Washington officers brought the first case to federal district court over salvage claims while the second case began in a Connecticut court after the state arrested the Spanish traders on charges of enslaving free Africans. The Spanish foreign minister, however, demanded that the Amistad and its cargo be released from custody and the "slaves" sent to Cuba for punishment by Spanish authorities. While the Van Buren administration accepted the Spanish crown's argument, Secretary of State John Forsyth explained, the president could not order the release of the Amistad and its cargo because the executive could not interfere with the judiciary under American law. He could also not release the Spanish traders from imprisonment in Connecticut because that would constitute federal intervention in a matter of state jurisdiction. Less interested in the separation of powers or the division of sovereignty in a federal state than in procuring immediate satisfaction for the Queen's honor, the Spanish minister retorted that the arrest of Spaniards and the holding of their "Negro property" were violations of the treaty of 1795 between Spain and the United States. Thus, at Forsyth's direction, an attorney for the United States government appeared before the U. S. District Court and presented Spain's argument that since a federally owned ship rescued the Amistad, the United States was obligated by international treaty to return the ship and its cargo to the Spanish owners.

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  • Tudor Elizabethian

    Elizabeth Tudor is considered by many to be the greatest monarch in English history. When she became queen in 1558, she was twenty-five years old, a survivor of scandal and danger, and considered illegitimate by most Europeans. She inherited a bankrupt nation, torn by religious discord, a weakened pawn between the great powers of France and Spain. She was only the third queen to rule England in her own right; the other two examples, her cousin Lady Jane Grey and half-sister Mary I, were disastrous. Even her supporters believed her position dangerous and uncertain. Her only hope, they counseled, was to marry quickly and lean upon her husband for support. But Elizabeth had other ideas.

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  • Selassie Guidance

    Elders and deacons may have ended the slave trade in 1808. Although the entire history has not been integrated into a full comprehensive database, it is clear that sentries were sent to Jamaica and Britain by Chiefs in Modern Day Ghana. Apparently, the unification of Tribes in Ghana led to the apparent struggles of slavery ending. Moreover, Equiano - is a clear example of a Sentry being sent to United Kingdom for purposes of freedom promulgation. The UK recruited Black Africans into its brigages.

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